Imagine standing on the shore of Lake Michigan. You see nothing but a vast expanse of water, deep and alive with currents. Now imagine that isn’t Lake Michigan, but the shore of the Gale Crater on Mars.
New pictures, taken by NASA's Curiosity Rover show thick slabs of dried sediment that look familiar to anyone who has seen a long dried up patch of water like a creek bed or a lake. Only this patch is on a massive scale. This is exciting to scientists who are looking forward to studying the sediment to find out just what happened to the water.
“You don’t need magic new science to understand the geology of Mars,” notes Janok Bhattacharya, a sedimentary geologist at McMaster University in Hamilton, Canada, as quoted in Science Magazine. Basically, geologists here on Earth can study the pictures and sample analysis sent back and make strong assumptions about the Martian climate based on how it matches up with what they’ve modeled here on Earth.
So far they do believe the water was in large bodies, with currents powerful enough to move the larger, more rounded rock sediment they've seen. They can also see how the sediment piled up over what could be millions of years, and possibly decipher what the layers meant about the changing climate on Mars’ surface and if there were different climates like here on Earth.
It goes without saying that scientists, geologists, and astronomy buffs are beyond excited about what the Curiosity Rover has been able to show us. This is big news and a big step in understanding other worlds. The geology discovery that lies ahead is going to be rich in data thanks to the Rover, and we can't wait to see what comes next!
As we ponder a now mostly dry planet and what it will tell us about life on Mars, or perhaps if we are seeing the future of our own planet, we should also stop and appreciate the tremendous feat of technology and engineering the is the Curiosity Mars Rover.
If you want to understand what an achievement it is to have these pictures and data coming back from Mars you won’t want to miss Red Planet Rover Tuesday night at 9P on Science Channel. You’ll get to follow the build and the journey to Mars from the eyes of the mission control team. This is their baby and they’ve invested their time, theories, and hope in this amazing spacecraft.
It’s all part of a night of intense space exploration. There is truly something for everyone who is wondering about the universe.
What’s On Tuesday:
8P - How the Universe Works: Forces of Mass Construction
9P – Red Planet Rover: See the Mars Curiosity Rover as You Never Have Before
10P – Space’s Darkest Secret: Can Scientists Crack the Mystery of Dark Matter?
Want to learn more about the geology of Mars? Turn to Science Magazine's in-depth feature.
Tonight at 9p EST, Science Channel will be airing a special segment, including post-analysis from the confirmation there is liquid water on Mars. Mars: A Special Report discussing how they made the discovery and what it means for future Mars exploration.
I can’t wait to hear what the #NASA experts have to say. After viewing the NASA press conference and Q&A yesterday, it seems like at a basic level the mission is to keep moving forward and exploring just what liquid water on Mars means. In short, the discovery opens up more questions than there are answers.
The 900 lb. gorilla of a question in the room, on our website, and on our social media pages is: if there is water, is there life?
Aliens. It seems to always comes back to that concept for many of us. My parents read comics about canals on Mars being made by a powerful civilization. I’m of the generation that has seen Hubble open up the vastness of the universe where the sheer odds point to the fact there must be some kind of life out there. Now scientists have done studies that show microbial life doesn’t always have to have oxygen and water to live. Still, if you’ve got water you are likely one step closer to finding something that could be defined as life.
That’s what had the scientists so excited about the future. Now they have been able to secure enough information to confirm the liquid water, they can focus on its composition, its activity, and how we might use it on future missions. There are just so many things to find out about our own life and planet as we start understanding Mars more. There are also new hopes of colonizing the planet in a different way than we might have before. Of course, even many scientists whoooped over the possibility of finding new life - even microbes to start!
I’m going to pump the brakes on speculating about the future for a minute and go back to the mystery and beauty of what we have just found out simply about the topography and nature of Mars.
They finally understand these dark streaks – called recurring slope lineae (RSL) – as being indicators of liquid water that drip down the sides of craters and slopes. This is something scientists had begun to observe and discuss for a few years with data from the Phoenix Lander and pictures from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) showing the RSL over various sites.
Add the Curiosity Rover into the mix and you have the perfect scientific storm for confirmation of liquid water. As the pictures got clearer, and the Curiosity Rover could take soil samples the story started to take shape. The NASA team mineral mapped the site from the MRO’s Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). This data revealed hydrated salts and that brings us to the press conference yesterday and the beautiful photos we have been seeing.
So for all of you who in our forums who have said we’ve known about water on Mars for years, you are right in some ways. We HAVE known about ancient frozen water – not liquid. It is also true NASA has also been studying this current phenomenon since 2010. The announcement was not held for any other reason than it is only now when the perfect mix of technology and research allowed the scientists to put the pieces together. They like being right. They're funny like that.
As I saw how the pieces came together for them I took a moment to look out my window into the sky. I am so incredibly proud of NASA and the science community. The collective work of hundreds of people (likely a lot more) went into to this discovery and a few of the others I picked up yesterday. This is the information that will one day allow the next generation to explore Mars and beyond.
There is a water cycle on Mars; it doesn’t rain but it does snow
Mars has seasons, just like Earth. The RSL change dependent on the seasons, which was another clue.
The water probably pretty shallow more like trickles and drips rather than rolling streams – but we don’t know that didn’t happen in the past or what is happening under the surface.
That's what wowed little old me; what wowed you?
As you'd expect, we were all smiles here at Science Channel yesterday during the live broadcast because we loved seeing the scientists be able to share this breakthrough, and we loved being a part of sharing it. We can't resist sharing the faces of of those who produce such exciting live events and those who stand watch in our broadcast center to make sure everything is beautiful on our air!
We also love being able to bring you the update at 9P, will explain more about how they found the water, why is is so important to the future, what are they going to do next?
It’s also exciting we could share this experience with our colleagues around the globe. We have video from our colleagues at Discovery News. We’ve seen people in our worldwide divisions talk about it on social media. Here are a few posts for you to enjoy, and we hope to see you for a night of Mars programming, with our special update at 9P.
Our colleagues from TestTube hit the nail on the head in their blog when they commented it might be the best marketing promotion ever dreamed up if this announcement from NASA was to promote The Martian. We were saying the same thing as the #NASA panel slowly built up to the big reveal: there is evidence of flowing water on Mars. It wasn't a movie; it's what #NASA has been searching for for years, finally confirmed after careful study of the surface geology and samples from the #CuriosityRover.
Get the full TestTube blog, and stick with us as we will be checking in with them throughout the day for more of their thoughts and perhaps some video.
Mark Burstiner at TechnoBuffalo is always getting his hands on the latest and greatest tech stuff. Whether it’s the latest smartphone or TV, he examines every aspect of a product and fills us in on what puts them at the cutting edge. In the video below, gets up close with the new LG OLED TV and explains what the technology means both on phones and on the new smart TV from LG.
A short way of describing the difference is the OLED TVs do not require the backlighting that LCD panels do. The “organic light emitting diodes” are so efficient they are only activated when they need to be; when not in use they dim or turn themselves off. What that means for you and me is the black is a true black, and when you have that you have a picture with amazing contrast and clarity.
When I (Science Channel's Geek in Residence) first saw it my jaw nearly dropped to the floor. I couldn’t look away when I saw scenes where stars and galaxies popped. That got me to thinking, if I can’t look away, it’s likely others will have the same reaction and will be glued to this new TV.
Being the science geek I am, I remembered the debate that has been raging for a few years now. It’s about the sociology around adopting new technology; the root of the debate is the question of dehumanization.
Will we become so tethered to our devices and technology, that we will become less sociable and less personally invested in each other and our communities? As we stare at our screens – whether it’s our phones or our TV’s, will we no longer be able to relate to each other in real life? Will our only connections be in the virtual world – and can you really call those human relationships?
It almost goes without saying there are many people on the other side of the debate over the latest technology in phones, devices, and TVs. Rather than being the death of human interaction, they argue the new social platforms that develop with technology takes our connection to others to another level. It’s easier to keep up with people, be a part of shared world experiences like watching and tweeting the World Cup, or finding relevant communities and causes that drive us to action in real life.
It’s an interesting question, so I set out to find some answers. What I found were observations and studies that had numbers to back up BOTH sides of the debate.
Not surprisingly I’m not the only one stymied by the lack of clarity. In July 2015, The Wall Street Journal ran an article, “Is Technology Making People Less Sociable?” They had researchers from both sides make their case for the growth of technology and its effect on our relationships.
In a widely circulated, 2015 Wall Street Journal article, “Is technology making people less sociable?” professors Dr. Larry Rosen and Dr. Keith Hampton argue the pros and cons of technology and its effect on our relationships.
In the ‘cons’ corner, Dr. Larry Rosen, a professor of psychology at California State University who says, “Technology is distracting us from our real world relationships.” Rosen argues there is a big difference between connecting or checking in with someone on social media than there is an actually communicating face to face.
Backing that up, Dr. Rosen pointed to a study they conducted, which showed even though we can communicate emotions in the virtual world, it’s just a virtual sentiment. The study showed offering empathy online “is only one-sixth as effective in making the recipient feel socially supported compared with that empathy which was proffered in the real world. A hug feels six times more supportive than an emoji.”
In the ‘pros’ corner. Dr. Keith Hampton, a sociologist at the University of Pennsylvania, worked with the Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life project in 2011. Their study indicated we are not losing our ability to truly communicate and share with each other it’s just that we are doing it differently as a natural adaptation to rapidly growing technology.
The Life Project found that people who used Facebook regularly throughout the day were 43% more likely than other Internet users to trust others and 9% said they had close relationships with others on Facebook. 43% said they would be more likely to vote.
The ability for technology to get us talking and connecting, also seems to have the long tail effect of encouraging us to take action, which is pretty amazing.
The Pew Center followed up with another study in July 2015, which addressed the gaming aspects of online social interaction. The research found that 83% of teen gamers played with others in person. 75% also played with others online. That indicates these heavy technology consumers don’t feel alone or isolated at all.
Plus it’s not just gaming technology that pulls people together. The growth of technology and social platforms has fundamentally changed the way we receive our news and information, and what we do with it.
People can tweet or take video of a random event and it could become worldwide news. Anyone can stream an event live and we can talk to them in real time about what’s happening on the other side of the world. In doing so it could be said we become part of a group making history, via an online conversation.
Many would argue our being able to use our technology to become part of world events is what helps us actually become more human.
A good example is the Syrian Refugee Crisis. We watch footage on TV of the desperate people with nowhere to go on the news as we eat our breakfast. Or while sitting on the bus on the way to work you get an email on your phone from a friend who has sent another video with a link on how to help. At work, you head to a news website which has additional stories about the crisis, curated by a human behind the scenes who knows it’s a trending topic. You read about a few charities and reach out to one of your social media groups to confirm they do good work. Then you donate through an app or hashtag.
At the end of the day however, looking strictly at the research, it becomes a he said/she said story. Looking just at the science we can only say that each side has its numbers and studies that are very real for those who participated.
Until the official journal is called for and published, one can honestly to come to the conclusion that technology is taking our attention away from humanity and making us less sociable. What we can say is it likely a question of perspective.
We keep creating new technology and we use it in myriad of different ways. In the end, the choice of how to engage with new platforms and new devices is up to the individual and likely how they interact their peer group, and their influencers.
You know what? Sometimes it’s ok to not have a definitive answer to a complex question like whether a new phone or TV will make you less sociable. If you want to watch your OLED with some friends because the football game looks amazing on it, that’s fine. If you just want to use your smartphone to check in on your parents, that’s fine too. You don't have to live tweet the game just because you can, nor do you need to insist your parents get Skype. Trust me.
In my humble opinion, it’s having the ability to make a choice on how we use our technology that defines us a human and how we choose to socialize in the first place.
For me, my choice is to keep leaning in to new technology and learning everything I can about it. I’ve found friends, support groups, and entertainment I would never have expected to find even five years ago.
So when I first saw the new LG OLED, and Mark was remarking it was a gamer's dream, my very first thought was it would be amazing to binge watch The West Wing on it with a few friends.
Mark and I are two people who by the nature of our jobs use a lot of technology every day, but when we thought about what we'd do with a new TV you got two different ideas. Even if you have two people on the same side of the debate that technology makes us more social, you still see the human side come out as we made choices.
Fortunately, the new LG OLED does what new technology should do best, and delivers for many different desires.
Did you know that, yesterday August 20th was National Lemonade Day? Lemonade is probably the most popular thing we think of when it comes to lemons. There are fewer things nicer on a hot summer day than an ice-cold glass of inexplicably sweet-tart lemonade.
There’s much more to lemons than just lemonade however, and just because summer comes to an end doesn’t mean we should stop loving and celebrating them. Lemons are gifted with some pretty powerful natural substances that make them not only smell and taste good, but can do some amazing things for your body, inside and out.
Let’s get to know the four key ingredients in lemon juice and then break down just ten of the many things they can do. Lemon juice contains:
Citric acid – Citric acid is a weak organic acid that acts as a preservative and a part of the metabolic process in aerobic organisms. In addition to being a preservative, it also adds taste to certain foods.
Limonene – Limonene is a colorless, liquid hydrocarbon with a strong smell, found concentrated in the rinds of citrus. In various molecular forms, it can be used in everything from solvents to medical applications, including new research on battling cancer cells.
Ascorbic Acid – Ascorbic acid is a naturally occurring compound that has anti-oxidant properties. It is also known as Vitamin C, which has countless health benefits.
Lemon Oil – Lemon oil is a naturally occurring oil found in the rind of the lemon; unlike many other oils it is generally not distilled from the fruit but cold-pressed. In addition to being valued for its strong smell, it is also said to have antibiotic properties.
Together the ingredients in lemon juice have a very low pH number, meaning they are acidic – which is no surprise to anyone. Some people love the sour tang of lemons, but beyond taste, the acid in lemon juice can have an effect on the body, even at a cellular level.
So should we see lemons as a magic food waiting in the wings to be consumed en masse? It’s true that lemons and lemon juice is the subject of ongoing cancer research, including some interesting new tests involving other compounds they’ve been found to carry. To add perspective, remember lemons are relatively small and provide a small amount of juice. You’d have to eat a lot of lemons for their juice to have a clinical impact.
Lemons CAN be a great addition to your daily diet and routine. They help aid with some common health problems, and research may prove eating them regularly may even prove to have some important preventative effects.
We love them not only for the health problems they can address, but they are a great to add to your arsenal of sustainable living practices. How? Once you’re done with the juice or the zest, you can cut the lemon into wedges and use them to deodorize and clean everything from your garbage disposal and trash cans to making your fridge smell nice and help scrub your pots and pans. Nothing goes to waste!
So let’s get to it and geek out on just some of the ways the lemon shows us some love.
Acne – While most of our body has a naturally regulated neutral pH balance, it turns out our skin really likes the acid in lemons. Bacteria living on our skin and in our pores often cause nasty breakouts, inflammation and acne. For some, the addition of lemon juice on a cotton swab makes the skin a less of a breeding ground for overactive bacteria on the skin’s surface. Scientists in Korea have found that lemon juice not only curbs the bacteria, but also acts on chemical messengers within that triggers our immune systems to overreact to the bacteria by creating redness and even killing skin cells.
Anti-Aging – All that vitamin C in lemons can help to battle free radicals – highly unstable, quick moving molecules formed from weak chemical bonds that break apart. That creates some hungry molecules looking to repair their own bonds and when our skin cells are in their path they work to steal molecules from our tissue, breaking down cells in the process. Aging. While some of this happens naturally during metabolism, there are a lot of environmental free radicals attacking our skin that pushes the aging process along. By arming out skin, and our bodies in general, with enough vitamin C it can help slow down that process and in some cases help repair it to a degree. While you’ll now see vitamin C added to face creams and beauty treatments, you can also do a lot of good with a daily glass of warm lemon water.
Anti-Bacterial – Have you ever seen a person at the grocery store or in a tollbooth wiping their fingers on a half a lemon? Many people who handle money will use the lemon juice to wet their fingers to make the money easier to handle. There’s another reason, however. We know that the acidity from the citric acid and vitamin C of the lemon juice acts as a natural anti-bacterial agent, and frankly, who knows where that money’s been? Many people even use lemon juice as a disinfectant due to its anti-bacterial properties, but scientists say that on a large scale it may not truly kill all types of bacteria. The acid in small amounts of lemon juice have been shown to kill some bacteria, but its real strength lies in creating an atmosphere where they just don’t want to reproduce and grow. So think of the lemon juice or lemon water on your hands or fingers as a really great retardant for common bacteria.
Cancer – Can lemons cure cancer? No, not as such, but studies have shown that people with a high vitamin C intake do have lower instances of some forms of cancer. Plus we know vitamin C works against those free radicals in the body that attack our cells. Seriously damaged cells are those that lead to cancers. The citric acid in lemon juice shouldn’t be ignored either; not only does it help battle free radicals, but it is a compound that acts as a catalyst for the absorption of other essential vitamins and minerals in the body. So not only is it healthy in its own right, it helps the other healthy things you eat do their job.
Diuretic – Lemons are one of those foods that can help the body flush out extra fluids, and that’s helpful for many reasons. It can help lower blood pressure and ease a case of uncomfortable bloating. Over the counter diuretics do the job, but often they deplete your body of other things like vitamin B in the process. Lemon juice doesn’t work that way. We know that on the whole, lemon juice and its citric acid like to help the body keep and metabolize what’s good for it. Many people claim that lemon juice helps them lose weight – likely due to the loss of excess water, but it must be stressed that although darn healthy, lemons cannot be directly correlated to long-term weight loss. Think of them as a big picture health tool.
Detoxification – Many people have heard of the lemon juice, maple syrup and cayenne pepper cleanse. That is a serious concoction that should only be considered with doctor’s advice. On a more day-to-day preventative level the ingredients in lemon juice can help keep your kidneys and liver functions on the right path. The juice and oil from the peels contain a compound called d-limonene. It acts as an antioxidant that activates enzymes in the liver to fight against and break down toxins. In the kidneys the citric acid in the lemons help fight kidney stones. Again it’s the acids that help correct the alkaline levels, combined the boost it gives to binding calcium that helps your kidneys flush out the right things. Here too, think of lemons in the big picture as part of your healthy diet and not as a magic cure all.
Electrolyte Replacement – When you exert yourself or when you are sick, your body loses important salts, minerals and acids. All of these are important because they contain the ions or the electrical energy that helps your body work properly. The electrical energy communicates instructions back and forth between your cells and neural pathways. While there are many products on the market, you can make your own electrolyte replacement with lemons. Lemon juice also contains calcium and potassium, and those combined with the acids help speed the replenishment of the lost minerals and resets your pH balance. A quick recipe is 32 oz. of water, a pinch of salt, 16 oz. of lemon juice and a half a teaspoon of honey – which adds some sweetness and glucose to speed up absorption of the replenishing compounds.
Insect Repellent –Instead of using chemical sprays to ward off insects, lemons may again provide a natural alternative. Mosquitoes are particularly attracted to sweet smells and warmer temperatures among other things, but they do NOT like the sour citrus scent of lemon. It’s the essential oil of the lemon that is projecting the strong smell so you can make a natural solution of lemon oil and water and wipe yourself down to stay cool and bug free. Be careful though; the essential oil of the lemon is so strong it could irritate some people’s skin so be sure to test your level of tolerance and mix the oil with water or a non-scented cream. It’s no joke to ward off pests like mosquitoes – they carry West Nile Virus and other diseases that are serious health risks above and beyond being itchy.
Nausea – Surprisingly, for some people sipping lemon water can help stave off nausea. Citric acid helps neutralize troublesome gastric acids, much like popular antacids. Again it’s all about that balance between alkaline and acid, and citric acid can act like a regulator to even things out. It’s not a treatment that works for everyone, and should be tried in moderation as too much of the citric acid can create an upset stomach in its own right.
Stress relief – We shouldn’t underestimate the importance of stress in our overall health. When we are stressed all our systems are knocked out of the balance our body needs. As we’ve learned from the facts above, lemons and the compounds within them love to keep body systems in balance. Plus, the acids in the lemons – ascorbic acid and citric acid help boost the immune system by amplifying the effect of vitamins and minerals you are taking in from other foods. They are like tasty little bundles of peacemaking compounds for your body. Then there is the citrusy smell. Lemon oil has been used in aromatherapy for centuries for its relaxation and calming properties Some sources believe the smell of lemons has the ability to stimulate you and make you more focused and productive, so don’t be surprised if you see some people using a citrus scent at their desks to give them an edge.
The takeaway is lemons are remarkable fuel for the body. Their powerful compounds act as a regulator when needed to reset the body’s pH balance and make the environment for bacterial growth and toxins unfriendly. Amazingly they also boost other vital vitamins and minerals so your body gets to a more overall sense of well being.
So take those versatile lemons and add the zest to your diet or start your day with a warm cup of water with lemon. All things in moderation so don’t go crazy with these simple little fruits. Just augmenting your daily diet with a little bit of lemon can bring a bigger picture of good taste, good health, and a good sense of well being.
Some day in the future, science may find a way to harness the power of these fruits to provide targeted cures, and there is no doubt they are interested in what they see. But until then, just enjoy your lemonade.
What’s it like to leave earth to explore the unknown? How does it feel to be in space? What happens when you’re in space and something goes terribly wrong? Science Channel’s SECRET SPACE ESCAPES reveals terrifying accidents, fights for survival, and stories of close calls and near misses by the astronauts who survived them. This all-new series offers chilling accounts of the challenges of space exploration as told only by the explorers who lived them and the men and women in mission control who helped each team avert disaster. SECRET SPACE ESCAPES premieres on Science Channel Nov. 10 at 10 PM.
Recounting missions as recent as 2013, SECRET SPACE ESCAPES will draw viewers into the emotional experience of space exploration. Through first-hand accounts by the astronauts who relied upon science, training, colleagues on earth and, most importantly, their wits, in order to survive launches, space walks, landings, collisions, outages and other dangerous situations that occurred during their missions. This is the first time that these near-disasters-turned-triumphs have been told solely from the point of view of the men and women who problem-solved each event – there is no narration in the series, and the stories unfold solely in the words of the people who were there.
“The personal stories of the astronauts in SECRET SPACE ESCAPES have never been seen like this before on television,” said Rita Mullin, General Manager of Science Channel. “These men and women have pushed space exploration forward with each mission, and their stories will haunt, entertain, educate and inspire.”
Featuring rare and never before seen footage, the astronauts and stories featured in SECRET SPACE ESCAPES will include:
Robert Curbeam and Thomas Jones trained for years to install a new American module on the International Space Station (ISS). During their long-anticipated spacewalk, a valve malfunctions and toxic ammonia flakes from the cooling system pour all over Curbeam. He struggles desperately to stop the leak before the vital cooling system fails. Covered like a snowman with ammonia flakes, Curbeam cannot risk re-entering the spacecraft, where the toxic ammonia could sicken or blind the crew. His only option is to stay outside, zooming at 17,000 miles per hour, 225 miles above the earth, and wait for the sun to melt away the contaminants.
When a new solar panel on the ISS tears, Scott Parazynski ventures out on a 90-foot arm to make improvised repairs. The solar panels carry enough voltage to fry Dr. Parazynski in his oxygen-filled suit -- but if he fails in his task, the ISS is doomed.
In 1997, Mike Foale is on an extended mission aboard the Russian Mir space station when it is struck by a resupply vessel. The station springs a leak, losing power rapidly and launching into an out of control spin. Under extreme pressure, Foale makes an ad hoc calculation using the position of the stars to determine the speed and direction of the spin. He and his Russian colleagues Vasily Tsibliyev and Aleksandr “Sasha” Lazutkin are able to use the rockets inside the attached Soyuz capsule to stop the roll, save the ship -- and their lives.
Hoot Gibson and Mike Mullane are on the second shuttle to launch after the Challenger disaster. It’s 1986 and STS-27 is a classified mission to launch a spy satellite. During liftoff, a video of the launch reveals a fragment of the booster rocket’s insulation breaking off and striking the underbelly of the space shuttle, Atlantis, damaging many of the protective heat shield tiles that leave parts of the shuttle exposed to 5,000 degree heat upon re-entry. Gibson thinks he’s going to die and Mullane suspects they may be facing certain disaster. They have no alternatives – there are no stations to dock to, there is no time to send another Shuttle to aid them and no way to conduct a spacewalk to fix the issue. Miraculously, even with vulnerable unshielded spots on her, Atlantis withstands the heat of reentry because a steel plate just happens to protect the aluminum hull where it is most exposed.
In 1969, the Soyuz 5 capsule tumbles to earth in a fireball because a malfunction does not jettison an extra equipment module. It’s like a car dragging a U-Haul trailer. When the capsule finally rights itself and the extra modules are jettisoned, its parachutes only partially deploy and the rockets that aid a soft landing barely function. Cosmonaut Boris Volynov lands way off target. Covered in blood from his broken teeth sustained in the crash landing, he manages to climb out of the wreckage and find his way to the door of a very surprised peasant.
SECRET SPACE ESCAPES is produced for Science Channel by ITV Studios America where Vincent Kralyevich and Patrice Andrews serve as executive producers. For Science Channel Neil Laird and Rocky Collins serve as executive producers and Lindsey Foster Blumberg is producer. Bernadette McDaid is vice president of production for Science Channel.
The fountain of youth. The idea of retaining or returning to one’s healthy youthful state indefinitely is a concept that has been studied in one form or another since the dawn of humankind. The ‘fountain of youth’ idea is based on the idea there is some product – a cream or a pill that will somehow turn the effects of aging around. Billions of dollars are spent each year on products that claim to in some way mask or slow the effects of aging, but what if we’re looking in the wrong place? What if the fountain of youth has really been inside us the whole time and we just need the technology to find it?
By asking whether technology can reverse aging we have to split the current research into two groups. The first is the group of researchers like Randal Koene who want to preserve life by turning our intellect and emotions into digital copies. This could mean purely a digital experience, and not just reversing aging but creating a limitless one.
Other scientists are tackling aging at the cellular level. The generally accepted idea with this theory is aging is caused by breakdowns or gradual mutation of the mitochondria in our cells. Mitochondrial DNA control cellular respiration and energy – key to keeping our cells young. Gradual breakdown of the mitochondria sequences over time lead to the signs we associate with aging and eventual shutting down of the cells.
Teams of scientists in Japan, Australia, and the U.S. have recently made the discovery that it may not be as simple as the sequencing of our DNA breaking down. The Japanese team studied the cells from a range of fetal to 12-year old young people and 80 to 97 year-olds. It turns out the actual sequences, or capacity of the DNA between the two groups was largely the same.
What they theorized is the breakdown or misfiring at the cellular level is really caused by turning on or off of genes, which can be done by adding the proteins or chemical structures like amino acids that enable them. If you can control delivery of chemicals and proteins you can reprogram genes to reverse the breakdowns.
The Japanese team proved they could successfully turn the genes off that affect cellular respiration. Then they turned them back on by adding the amino acid glycine. The combined team from Australia and the U.S. restored the functionality or ‘communication’ between mitochondria and the nuclei of cells by injecting mice with a natural compound called NMN. It accelerates the levels of molecule NAD that repairs the functionality. In the study, the results of the injection had some of the same effects as those mice that were fed the equivalent of a low calorie diet. The younger the mice were, the more dramatic the effect; so could it be possible that if we start taking or injecting ourselves early enough we could stall aging altogether?
With these new breakthroughs in understanding how we might treat our cells we could be looking at prolonged and healthier future. But where does the technology come in?
It’s a given that to accomplish this research scientists are working with advanced medical equipment to create, deliver, and document gene therapy. We are talking about microsurgery at an advanced level as scientists look to bind healthy, treated cells to other cells and replace them in the body to grow and help regenerate damaged cells.
But beyond microsurgery, there are already technologies hitting the market in the near future that could help us prevent and treat malfunctions in the body earlier. As the team from Discovery News documents in their video there are wearable wristbands that already track our fitness and diet; in addition to be preventative health care to slow down aging, these devices could one day also alert us to more serious medical problems.
The Discovery News team also highlights magnetic pills we could ingest to directly target the source of cellular breakdown with the appropriate amino acid. Imagine 3-D printers are creating these pills or vaccines on a mass scale.
The fountain of youth is an ephemeral concept. Will we live forever as intellect inside a computer, or will we use computers and advanced technology to tap and fix what is already inside us? The race is on.
Understanding how our brain works is the holy grail of neuroscience. Our brains are estimated to be made of 85 to 100 billion neurons with electrochemical signals jumping between them, creating thought, decisions, bodily functions, and the essence of who we are. If we understand how these neurons and synapses operate then we could cure diseases, prolong our health and memory, and maybe – just maybe – we could copy those patterns to a computer or to host bodies.
The creation of a “substrate independent minds” sounds like science fiction or the subject of fringe science. The fact is, the project to upload a human mind to a computer is happening right now with neuroscientist Randal Koene as a chief advocate.
For Koene, the idea is very simple. If you map the brain and identify the patterns by which the neurons fire, you could effectively copy them as basic binary computer code. If you do this correctly you would copy those unique synapses that make up our emotions, skills, and personalities. Koene believes that if all the basic functions of the brain are copied and the complexities of how the neurons communicate are rendered accurately, then the computerized version of your brain would be self-aware.
Are you freaked out? Do you have questions? Of course you do.
This is a big idea that raises a lot of unknowns. While something may be possible, it doesn’t mean that we know exactly how it will work. That’s much like the story in the movie Self/Less – just because we could upload our brains to another, younger body doesn’t mean we know what would happen.
Koene has theorized that we could potentially live in host bodies – human, or even human ones that our computerized brains have adapted to different living environments. Koene also thinks we could simply live in a digital environment much like the “Cloud.” While we know how our brains react to each other as humans, we don’t know how our brains would act towards each other in bodies we don’t recognize now or even just as a digital brain occupying space in the Cloud. Our synapses for memories and behavior would probably have to evolve.
This evolution or expansion of our consciousness is exactly why Randal Koene believes uploading the human brain is a good thing. As a species we need to find a way to evolve to meet the rapidly changing future and infrastructure around us, and this could be the answer. After all, many prominent minds like Stephen Hawking haven’t been shy about stating they believe the very artificial intelligence and robots we’ve created will one day evolve themselves beyond our intelligence and eventually take over. Suddenly it doesn’t sound like science fiction any more, but perhaps a necessity to keep our species – or at least the intelligence and essence of it alive.
In fact, it isn’t science fiction it’s science fact that Koene’s research and those of others’ are real. There is an open source movement called “The Open Worm Project” that has already created a virtual brain of a roundworm and uploaded it into a Lego robot. YOU can even participate in refining that project to begin to get comfortable with creating virtual intelligence.
There is also the research being done at USC and Wake Forest where in 2011 scientists created the world’s first artificial neural implant which works in a rat. They targeted the rat’s hippocampus where neurons and electrical signals create the memory to perform tasks. The scientists copied the patterns of the signals and placed them on a chip. Next, they removed the rat’s hippocampus and the rat couldn’t do the tasks. Adding in the chip? The memory to complete tasks was restored.
It’s cutting edge science, but no longer science considered on the fringes. In 2013 the EU and US announced initiatives to boost the field of brain research and hopefully move the goals into the mainstream.
We’ve come a long way, but we all know worm and rat brains are far from the beautiful, complex machine that is the human brain. Koene’s continued work on mapping the brain with the goal of creating a “whole brain emulation” could take years and years to complete. So each neural pathway Koene and other neuroscientists explore is critical in achieving a full understanding of the brain and how to replicate it.
That time may be just what we need to wrap our minds around the enormous consequences of creating our own virtual intelligence means. How long would we be able to live? Would we redefine what it means to be human by programming out undesirable traits? Would we be able to have relationships?
In short, would the rush of being “immortal” be replaced by a reality that brings on more questions than answers? One can theorize, but we can’t yet answer that question. As we find out in the movie Self/Less, it will likely be a very personal question.
The use of hydrogen as a clean energy source for the future is the subject of much R&D these days. We’ve long since figured out that hydrogen is an element that produces a lot of energy – the key is finding out how to harness it and store it in an efficient fashion so we can use if for everyday purposes like powering our cars or items in the home.
One of the cleanest ways to harness hydrogen is to separate it from a hydrogen heavy resource like water. In a process called electrolysis, an electrical current separates the hydrogen from the oxygen molecules in water. Our colleagues over at TestTube have created this awesome video explaining the process in detail.
So it’s relatively easy to harvest the hydrogen, the problem is how do you store it? The reason hydrogen holds so much hope as a fuel source is that it has a high mass energy density – that means it is powerful stuff compared to other fuels. The problem is hydrogen has a low volumetric energy density, which means it generally takes up a LOT of space to store.
In the past we’ve been able to deal with that given it’s large-scale industrial applications. In fact, NASA used it in the Space Shuttle programs. They used liquid hydrogen (produced when the hydrogen is super cooled) to power those massive rockets to get the Shuttle into space. In that case size wasn’t a barrier.
The key to using hydrogen for slightly less dramatic uses than launching rockets is finding that way to store it in fuel cells. NASA used early versions of hydrogen fuel cells on the Shuttle to power their electrical systems. The only by-product is water, which conveniently the astronauts used to drink.
The system has been improved upon so much over time that NASA is researching how to use it to power spacecraft to explore our solar system. On the smaller, more personal scale we now have cars like the Toyota Mirai that efficiently and cleanly use hydrogen fuel cells. The cars fill up with water, and utilize it's own air in-take to power the process of electrolysis. The hydrogen is stored in carbon fiber fuel cells and the only footprint it leaves behind is more water.
The Mirai is even more efficient because it combines existing electric car technology where electricity created by the braking mechanism is used to power the electrolysis process that creates the hydrogen.
As this car hits the market, the research on creating the next generation of hydrogen fuel use is underway. Creating new efficiencies in the fuel cells is one area of focus, looking both at what substances can most efficiently aid in the electrolysis process and help store them without corrosion.
One new study from McGill University in Montreal has demonstrated how existing technology of storing hydrogen atoms as hydrocarbons can be driven by ambient solar energy. Going a step further than electrolysis, some current storage applications create hydrocarbons by adding a catalyst chemical that bond with multiple hydrogen molecules. The trick is generating enough energy to “dehydrogenize” the hydrocarbon back into hydrogen to store in the fuel cells that make things go. It’s a process that can take a lot of energy and may be impractical on smaller scales, than say needing to power a rocket.
The researchers have found that plain old sunlight can drive dehydrogenization by using platinum based nanoparticles as the catalyst to pull the hydrocarbons apart without using high energy temperatures.
Some day soon things could be powered on a large scale by the very water and air around us, leaving nothing behind to corrupt the planet. We now have cars that can efficiently create and store hydrogen for clean transportation, and someday soon, huge solar farms could transform and store these high-energy molecules on a large scale to power entire city grids.
Harnessing ocean currents, curbing CO2 emissions, circular ion accelerators. How cool do these ideas sound? What’s even cooler is these are just a few of the real amazing projects the national finalists in the annual Discovery Education 3M Young Scientist Challenge are creating.
We here at Science Channel are in awe of the possibilities this next generation is embracing. Science, curiosity, and questioning everything will be how we embrace the challenges of the future. Clearly the ten students chosen have their eyes on that future, and are thinking about how we can make it a better place.
So how did these ten students get to this point? The annual Discovery Education 3M Young Scientist Challenge is the nation’s premier science competition for students in grades 5-8. Students all over the country submitted short videos communicating the science behind a possible solution to an everyday problem. The finalists rose to the top of the competition due to their science acumen, innovative thinking and exceptional communication skills demonstrated in their entry videos.
Each bright young student will now have the exclusive opportunity to work directly with a 3M Scientist during a unique summer mentorship program, where they will be challenged to develop an innovation that positively impacts them, their family, their community or the global population. As part of the world-renowned program, students will meet virtually with their mentors, who will provide guidance as the finalist develops his or her idea from a concept into an actual prototype.
Throughout the program, each student will have access to resources and support provided by 3M and Discovery Education. Students will then present their inventions during the competition’s final event at the 3M Innovation Center in St. Paul, Minn. October 12th and 13th.
Congratulations to the top 10 finalists in this year's Challenge:
Peter Finch, Harrisville, R.I., Homeschool
Arthur Frigo, III, Jupiter, Fla., Turtle River Montessori
Raghav Ganesh, San Jose, Calif., Joaquin Miller Middle School, Cupertino Union School District
Amulya Garimella, Pittsburgh, Pa., Dorseyville Middle School, Fox Chapel Area School District
Iris Gupta, North Potomac, Md., Robert Frost Middle School, Montgomery County Public Schools
Hannah Herbst, Boca Raton, Fla., Alexander D. Henderson University School, Florida Atlantic University Schools
Alec Lessing, New York, N.Y., Collegiate School
Conner Pettit, Lone Tree, Colo., Cresthill Middle School, Douglas County School District
Krishna Reddy, Wichita Falls, Texas, Kirby World Academy, Wichita Falls Independent School District
Sanjana Shah, Cupertino, Calif., John F. Kennedy Middle School, Cupertino Union School District
For more information on the Discovery Education 3M Young Scientist Challenge, including photos and bios of the ten finalists and a list of the state merit winners, please visit www.youngscientistchallenge.com.
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